Sample Research Proposal On Project Proposal Skin Cancer

Published: 2021-07-04 17:20:04
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Category: Literature, Books, Information, Community, Health, Skin, Cancer, Skin Cancer

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How can health institutions reduce cases of Skin Cancer through preventative measures?
Project Summary
The main purpose of the project is to initiate a campaign on Skin Cancer Awareness and to educate the citizens about the importance of protecting themselves against skin cancer. The $50,000 funding is part of strengthening the initiative. This is a one year long project that will target an audience of 15-25 years. The main objective of the project will be to enable behavior change and it will involve use of group sessions, workshops, and mass media among other modes of reaching out the target group. Arguably, this campaign seeks to raise awareness of the risks and consequences related with skin cancer, it also seeks to increase social acceptability of sun protection behaviors. This skin cancer awareness campaign further encourages health professionals and parents to facilitate positive behaviors and assist in creating a climate where health professionals could effectively reinforce critical messages. An abstract of the campaign objectives is demonstrated below.
1.0 Introduction
According to Heinz (2007), evidence suggests that exposing oneself to sun contribute significantly to a lifetime risk of skin cancer. Health professionals recommend that people should evade direct sun as much as possible. Heinz (2007) further affirms that sun protection with Sun Protective Factor also assists in protecting from skin cancer. It is critical to look for skin changes of any kind like a sore, that continuously scab, hurt, itch, bleed or erode. As indicated above, this is a one year long project that will target an audience of 15-25 years. The main objective of the project will be to enable behavior change and it will involve use of group sessions, workshops, and mass media among other modes of reaching out the target group.
2.0 Background information
According to Naheed et al. (2011), skin cancers are the commonest cancer managed by health professionals. The purpose of this project proposal is to provide comprehensively in prevention and management of skin cancer. As indicated by Goldsmith (2011) the institutes of Medicine approximates that most courses of skin cancer are related to avoidable habits. Protection from sun exposure by wearing protective clothing, seeking shade; wearing a broad-brimmed hat; applying SPF 30+ sunscreen; and wearing a wrap around sunglasses are some of the way one can use to avoid protect him/herself from skin cancer.
In accordance to Goldsmith (2011), rates of skin cancer are drastically increasing. Arguably, the most preventable risk factor, according to Stockfleth et al. (2010), is unprotected ultraviolet exposure (UV). Seeking to identify effectual approaches to reducing incidences of skin cancer by improving both individual and community efforts that lessen unprotected Ultraviolet exposure. The task force aims at conducting systematic reviews of youth involvement to reducing exposure from ultraviolet light and boost protective behaviors (Egan, 2006). Arguably, there has been sufficient evidence from the researches on why two intervention strategies. First is based on improving in sun protection behavior “covering-up,” covering clothes that cover most part of the body. The second are policy and educational policies that are in two settings i.e. the education institutions and recreational sites. In keeping with the past researches by MacFarlane (2010), there has been insufficient evidence that determine the effectiveness of numerous other population-based interventions which recommended for additional research on educational and policy approaches. These approaches are projected to educational centers, tourism and recreational sites. Interventions target the campaigners, and youth between 10- 15 years of age. In this proposal, additional information regarding the recommended interventions has been indicated; nonetheless, use of group sessions, workshops, and mass media has been depicted to be the best method of initiating the whole process.
3.0 Question, aim and objectives
This study poses the question of how health institutions can reduce the rate of skin cancer through edifying the general public on the preventative measures that can aid in reducing reports of skin cancer. According to MacFarlane (2008), effective campaign measures are fundamental in enlightening the public and hence reducing incidences of this cataclysm. The research proposal aims at finding answers which provide an excellent criterion for establishing the effectiveness of the campaign system in averting and reducing incidences of skin cancer within the society as Rajpar and Marsden (2008) corroborates:
- Are members of the health care service provision acquainted with preventative measures of skin cancer?
- What is the general attitude of health care providers towards getting involved in the campaign? Does their attitude towards the campaign hinder the objective of the mission?
- What is the perception of the youth towards adjusting to behaviors that promote healthy skin?
- Is the collected data pertaining skin cancer utilized for the purpose of improving and mitigating risks of skin cancer?
- What are the barriers to effective campaigning in the society what are the best ways of removing these barriers?
The fundamental objective of the study is to establish how the increasing cases of skin cancer within the society. The significance of this study is to contribute knowledge and to make the general public aware of the dangers of some of the social behaviors that expose them to skin cancer.
4.0 Methodology
In keeping with Kothari (2004), there are several methods through which data can be obtained in a research study. Kothari (2004) further notes that various research methods are within two distinct classes i.e. quantitative and qualitative techniques. The study envisage is employing both methods in its research process with respect to collecting data, presentation of research findings, and the analysis of the results to come up with a conclusion and make appropriate recommendations. Qualitative approach will be necessary for the data collecting phase while quantitative methods will be used in the analysis of the gathered data, as well as, in the implementation of research findings.
The qualitative methods will be used while interviewing healthcare service providers and members of the community. There will be a distribution of open ended questions questionnaire and physical observation shall be implemented. In keeping with Brandeau et al. (2004) reliability and validity of the study can be enhanced through making research questions that are easy to understand letting all the participants feel safe while participating in the interviewing process. To boost validity a reliability of research responses, the research questions shall be done in a very simple to understand the mode.
The analysis of the collected data shall employ a quantitative approach with consideration to the number of respondents who shall provide answers on skin cancer preventative measures. All the data shall be presented in graphical and tabular forms that shall be converted into the percentage for easy analysis and comprehension of the final inference regarding the findings of the research study.
5.0 Ethical considerations
According to Bowling and Ebrahim (2005), ethics in medical research represents the overriding rules that guide conduct in the process of research. Notably, ethical considerations will be integrated into the entire research period because the research intends to make us of human beings as primary subjects to provide information on how skin cancer has affected the community, the possible causes of the disease, as well as, the possible preventative measures.
6.0 Conclusion
This paper is a project proposal on how to conduct research that main objective is to provide information on the best preventative measures to be used in a campaign on skin cancer prevention. As has been illustrated in the background information section, skin cancer has affected many people in the community whereas some of the courses of this disease have been prevented. Skin cancer has to some extent been viewed from the perspective of negligence/ignorance by the society as well as health care service providers. This paper has highlighted some of the possible preventative measures that ought to be taken to decreases number skin cancer cases society. More so, the proposal has outlined ethical considerations that must be adhered to in recognition of the importance of human subjects who shall be involved in the provision of the necessary information. Ethical considerations favor boosting participant’s safety and confidentiality.
7.0 References
Bowling, A. & Ebrahim, S. (2005). Handbook of health research methods investigation, measurement and analysis. Maidenhead: Open University Press. Book retrieved from: http://books.google.co.ke/books?id=_HznvwUxkZsC&printsec=frontcover#v=onepage&q&f=false
Brandeau, M., Sainfort, F. & Pierskalla, W. (2004). Operations research and health care a handbook of methods and applications. Boston, Mass: Kluwer Academic. Retreived from: http://download.springer.com/static/pdf/35/bfm%253A978-1-4020-8066-1%252F1.pdf?auth66=1400504009_311f9a0f543baa8dd4da2e4c8343293b&ext=.pdf
Naheed A. Lakhani, Mona Saraiya, Trevor D. Thompson, Sallyann Coleman King, Gery P. Guy Jr. (2014). Total body skin examination for skin cancer screening among U.S. adults from 2000 to 2010 Original Research Article. Preventive Medicine, Volume 61, Pages 75-80 Retrieved from: http://www.jaad.org/article/S0190-9622%2811%2900314-8/pdf
Egan, T. (2006). Skin cancer: current and emerging trends in detection and treatment. New York: Rosen Pub. Group. Retrived from: http://books.google.co.ke/books?id=o1pel-hTRRAC&printsec=frontcover#v=onepage&q&f=false
Goldsmith, C. (2011). Skin cancer. Minneapolis, MN: Twenty-First Century Books. Retrieved from: http://books.google.co.ke/books?id=ZYTaMiQPLVUC&pg=PA2&dq=Skin+cancer.+Minneapolis,+MN:+Twenty-First+Century+Books&hl=en&sa=X&ei=lmF3U7SGDM7A7Aaj6IH4Ag&ved=0CDMQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=Skin%20cancer.%20Minneapolis%2C%20MN%3A%20Twenty-First%20Century%20Books&f=false
Heinz, V. (2007). Skin cancer: new research. New York: Nova Science. Retrieved from: http://books.google.co.ke/books?id=PDjUo-1fzykC&pg=PR5&dq=Skin+cancer:+new+research.+New+York:+Nova+Science.&hl=en&sa=X&ei=3mF3U5jJJKqw7AbW54CIDA&ved=0CDMQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=Skin%20cancer%3A%20new%20research.%20New%20York%3A%20Nova%20Science.&f=false
Hucker, K. (2001). Research methods in health, care and early years. Oxford: Heinemann. Retrieved from: http://books.google.co.ke/books?id=Vo9BvHXDxn8C&printsec=frontcover&dq=Research+methods+in+health,+care+and+early+years.&hl=en&sa=X&ei=X2J3U-HpJe6e7AaOooGIBg&ved=0CDAQuwUwAA#v=onepage&q=Research%20methods%20in%20health%2C%20care%20and%20early%20years.&f=false
Kothari, C. (2004). Research methodology methods & techniques. New Delhi: New Age International (P) Ltd. Retrieved from: http://books.google.co.ke/books?id=8c6gkbKi-F4C&printsec=frontcover&dq=Research+methodology+methods+%26+techniques&hl=en&sa=X&ei=5WJ3U5ObGeSt7Qbm8oGoDg&ved=0CDAQuwUwAA#v=onepage&q=Research%20methodology%20methods%20%26%20techniques&f=false
MacFarlane, D. (2010). Skin cancer management a practical approach. New York: Springer. Retrieved from: http://books.google.co.ke/books?id=JAUmtlD2ovEC&printsec=frontcover&dq=Skin+cancer+management+a+practical+approach&hl=en&sa=X&ei=MWN3U4e7N6mM7Ab37oGoCA&ved=0CDAQuwUwAA#v=onepage&q=Skin%20cancer%20management%20a%20practical%20approach&f=false
Rajpar, S. & Marsden, J. (2008). ABC of skin cancer. Malden, Mass: Blackwell Pub. Retrieved from: http://books.google.co.ke/books?id=aRE_YuXmaFoC&pg=PR4&dq=ABC+of+skin+cancer.+Malden,+Ma:+Blackwell+Pub.&hl=en&sa=X&ei=O2R3U6x0pYvsBrLFgfAG&ved=0CDoQuwUwAA#v=onepage&q=ABC%20of%20skin%20cancer.%20Malden%2C%20Ma%3A%20Blackwell%20Pub.&f=false
Stockfleth, E., Rosen, T. & Schumack, S. (2010). Managing skin cancer. Berlin: Springer. Retrieved from: http://www.google.co.ke/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=books&cd=1&ved=0CC8QFjAA&url=http%3A%2F%2Fmediskin.cn%2Fbbs%2Fattachment.aspx%3Fattachmentid%3D24&ei=dGR3U4OIN_Tb7Aa36ICoCw&usg=AFQjCNHzfQwxOSSrJvvbOzkmnbe2mq73bQ&bvm=bv.66917471,d.ZGU

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