9. The Birth of an American Empire, 1898 – 1902
The Mexican Governor Valeriano Weyler initiated the re-concentration policy to cede independence to United States. America watched the Cuban war from a bird’s eye view since they were opposed to the humanitarian issue while any disruption effort to avert the war would threaten American investments. The American nation proclaimed neutrality while it was hard to maintain the coastal patrols, and it was costly to prosecute offenders. According to the authors, President McKinley was pro-intervention since he considered concentrating in tariff reform and maintaining a sound currency. The president desired a diplomatic solution since he was an astute politician that valued public opinion. The rebels rejected the scheme, and the war continued with no winners.
10. Building the Military Forces and National Expansion, 1899 – 1917
At the start of a new century, Roosevelt thought of building a good army even if the issue had positive and negative effects in the nation. The President has more insights in world politics than most people in the country. Roosevelt acted subconsciously in preparation of a world war in the 19th century. American policy produces essential dependence protects America from foreign invasion and reduced dependence on the coastal defense and fortifications of the military forces. The political elite do gain increasing confidence on the Army and Navy officer corps to institutionalize the civilian control. The application of new technology will improve ordinance and other military operations.
11. The United States Fights in the “War to End All Wars, “1917 – 1918
World War I was a debut of the United States in the international military power in that it had positive and negative effects. American role in the First World War enables it to perform strategic thinking and balance power in entire Europe. Wilson administration decides that the nation has a critical role in Allied victory as the nation promotes democracy. American entrepreneurs exploit British naval control to make war a profit making enterprise. The Royal Navy controls the Atlantic to force the Germans from coping with American conceptions against their imperial system. Germans planned massive attacks such as the Lusitania operations that led to the demise of American citizens.
12. Military Policy between the Two World Wars, 1919 – 1939
Woodrow Wilson administration hopes that peace will prevail after signing of the Versailles Treaty. The military policy came after the end of internationalist foreign policy. The aim of the military policy included overseeing possessions from foreign attack, Defend America from threats, and preserve the country’s sovereignty and territorial integrity. European powers had reached optimum, and this was an advantage to America to ensure it could attain its strategic goals with minimal military power. The collapse of the Allied forces led to decolonization and creation of new nations in the 1930’s.
13. The United States and World War II, 1939 – 1943
The three big countries that included Britain, Russia, and America reviewed their military strategy in the wake of the Second World War. The countries assumed that they could dominate the world from potential threats such as Germans and Japanese. The Axis states tested their Western democracies, as Soviet Union doubted the resolve process. Benito Mussolini led the Italians to expand their African empire in Ethiopia to pursue their vision of new world order. The Japanese Empire expanded in Manchuria province through well-established military and use of modern weapons. The Axis countries coalition was in disarray with the Western Allies.
14. The United States and World War II, 1943 – 1945
Allied effort contributed to a successful outcome in the campaign of the Second World War. Churchill spearheaded the British forces in expanding the Mediterranean campaign in England. The combativeness of German forces disrupted Churchill vision of dramatic vision. Americans continued on their strategy of Italian campaign leading to a cross-Channel attack.
15. Cold War and Hot War, 1945 – 1953
The end of the Second World War marks a new dawn for United States since its foreign policy leads to dual concepts of wartime mobilization and maritime security. In addition to that, the end of the war maimed Europe and collapsed Asian and African empires to start wider wars. America engaged in foreign wars, peacetime military spending, and military alliances for it to reign as a superpower. The creation of nuclear weapons and adoption of intercontinental bombers lead to the demise of traditional American defense policy. America’s new strategy of deterrence will discourage potential enemies as well as alternative policy. Policymakers ponder the potential nuclear weapons to make war obsolete.
16. Waging Cold War, 1953 – 1965
After the end of Korean War America, shift its military policy toward concepts and programs to rival the Soviet Union concepts. The competition between Soviet and America lead to America changing their defense policy that can spread Communism and Soviet imperialism. The American policy rests on consensual assumptions on the nature of the military challenge. The objective of Cold War is to refine containment, forward collective defense, and strategic deterrence. Americans maintain the nuclear weapon strategy to change the nature of the Soviet threat. Both countries create rudiments and intercontinental bombers and advanced ballistic missiles. The Soviet Union counters the America’s creation of air defense system by creating a strategic rocket force.
17. In Dubious Battle: Vietnam, 1961 – 1967
Eisenhower briefs his successor on the impending issue in Laos, Southeast Asia. America had to face an imminent war with Asian mainland after the end of Korean War. The Vietnam War is both a civil and international war. The war has its complexities since the North Vietnam pities South Vietnam while in the international circles the country has conflict with China, America, and Soviet Union. The Vietnamese war leads to intra-allied tensions while foreign intervention lengthens war to increase its ferocity. The war has conventional and unconventional elements that add to ambiguities of the war. Men fighting on the infantry and mechanized units are on the risky part during the war than those in combat action.
18. The Lost War: Vietnam, 1968 – 1975
Antiwar sentiment grows against social instability, rising death toll, and foundering economy. The urban race riots threaten social tranquility as the nation uses the Army and National Guard to maintain peace. America refuses the idea of cutting domestic programs or raising taxes to address the war situation, and the result is inflation, trade deficits, and high-interest rates. The Gulf of Tonkin resolution comes with the demand of free elections from the electorate that suffer through dictatorial regimes. America lauds democratic regimes that crush Buddhist struggle movement in Vietnam. Liberals dislike a war situation on ethical and practical grounds.
19. The Common Defense and end of Cold War, 1976 – 1993
Nineteen seventy-six was an important year for the Americans that celebrated 200 years since they gained independence while they still bore Vietnam War wounds. Previous regimes had spent a lot in military during the Cold War. The collapse of Soviet Union leads to America losing a potential threat to becoming the world’s superpower. The issue of nuclear proliferation did not go well with American defense. The end of Cold War represents the efforts of many political actors while the American constitution focuses on the president’s efforts alone. For instance, moral poverty of the Communist party led to the demise of the Soviet Union after rebellion in the Warsaw Pact.
20. World Disorder New and Old, 1993 – 2001
Bush administration rejoiced in Gulf War victory as the era came with reduced military spending and low-risk strategy interventions. Collapse of Soviet Union led to NATO vigilance that created an aura of success in the management of the national security apparatus. Kremlin’s Red Army left Eastern Europe replaced by NATO forces. Russia defeat by Afghanistan led to peace in Middle East and South Asia. The Pentagon cut its costs in ships, missiles, and electronics while the Arab World increased its purchase for military equipment. America provided an incentive for salesmanship a role played by Soviet Union before the collapse.
21. Wars in Afghanistan and Iraq, 2001 – 2011
Bush administration initiated the Afghanistan and Iraqi war due ill Clinton and his father. Once al-Qaeda suicide attacked America in the global terrorism, they killed more than 3000 citizens in one morning. The terror attack gave Bush administration a defense focus under Global War on terror activities. America had learned that their potential enemy was Saddam Hussein due to his aggressive attack on Weapons of Mass Destruction. America had to change its defense policy from many peacekeeping operations.
Millett, Allan Reed, and Peter Maslowski. For the common defense: a military history of the United States from 1607 to 2012. 3rd ed., Free Press trade pbk. ed. New York: Free Press, 2012. Print.