Course Work On The Development Of Material Science And Its Impact On Computers

Published: 2021-06-22 20:00:05
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A computer is an electronic device that can be programmed to store information, and perform arithmetic and logical operations. People use computers to simplify their work by using the internet, calculations and word processing capability of these devices. People have innovated ways to improve computers from analogue systems to the modern efficient computers that have larger storage space and are portable. Research continues on various ways to enhance the computer systems and solve the existing challenges on their usage.
The type of atoms a material is made of is an essential characteristic of any matter. There are neutral and compound elements. The neutral elements contain the same number of electrons and neutrons that cancel each other. Compounds comprise of different elements that are chemically combined. The arrangement of atoms and how the atoms are bonded is a crucial consideration on every material. A liquid has free moving atoms unlike a solid’s atoms, which are compactly packed. The bonding of atoms is the third way to determine the characteristics of every material. The elasticity, plasticity, ductility and the ability to withstand forces depend on the bonding of atoms in an element (Nardo, 2002, p.13). These three characteristics determine the applicability of matter in daily life.

Atoms form chemical bonds that may be ionic, covalent, or metallic. Atoms form an ionic bond when the anions and cations join, whereas the valence of electrons between atoms join to form the covalent bond. Two metallic atoms share the valence electrons and form the metallic bond. An atom is the smallest unit of matter and is surrounded by negatively charged electrons. An electron is a negatively charged part of an atom that can either attach to the nucleus of an atom or remain free.

Initially, computers used germanium transistors that altered the computers’ operating temperature. The electrical nature of the silicon semi-conductors ensures that the temperature is not lost between the conduction and the valence bands. When silicon is exposed to oxygen, it forms an oxide that creates insulating layers. These layers let several substrates be built together, hence minimizing costs incurred per unit of the device.

The ability to conduct electricity at room temperature makes silicon desirable in making of semi-conductors. Silicon can effectively represent the large vacuum tubes, which people used in the past as the silicon chips are reliable and require less power. Silicon based materials are used in making calculators and computers due to their unique features. Use of silicon based semiconductors has increased electronic computing speed.

Microchips are tiny semiconductors designed with many interconnected circuits. A chip is made from small electronic circuits on a semiconductor material. These integrated circuits have revolutionized computers and other electronic devices used today. Microchips can be made from several integrated circuits, and this forms the relationship between the chips and the integrated circuits; a microchip is a model of the integrated circuit.

Silicon is crucial in the production of microchips as it is capable of conducting electricity with the help of some impurities that enhance its conductivity. Microchips are small in size, reliable, and with a high computational capability, hence useful in the modern technological world (Yechuri, 2004, p.21). The invention of microchips during the digital revolution is one of the most significant achievements in human history.

Artificial intelligence is a part of technology that studies, and seeks to invent intelligent devices and software. People are innovative in nature, and they attempt to create new technology to help ease their work in their daily lives (Russell, 2010, p.11). Scientists created artificial intelligence systems in an attempt to replicate the functioning of the human brain. Machines, such as computers, can now work faster than a normal human being, which means that the invention surpassed the scientists’ expectations. Some individuals fear that machines using artificial intelligence will take over their jobs due to their effective technological ability. This may not be the case as the human mind is involved in the creation of artificial intelligence and cannot be overcome by machines. Researchers that have tried to compare robots with the human mind conclude that there are some human characteristics that cannot be replicated.

Artificial intelligence is applicable in data analysis, where variables such as weather and stock markets trends require complicated observations. Computers use software that analyzes information with graphs and tables, which makes it easily understood by the brain. The internet is an example of artificial intelligence, and it helps specialists in predicting future activities, and advising people on the right measures to take in their current situations. Artificial intelligence has enabled people to learn on how to handle different activities such as risk mitigation in business.

There are several types of artificial intelligence such as pattern recognition, Search and logical. Pattern recognition enables the artificial intelligence device to identify an activity, and copy the pattern. The Search program observes and creates a large number of possibilities to handle various situations. The logical artificial intelligence program can solve a problem by use of basic reasoning as directed by the user.

The human brain is different from the central processing unit of a computer. The brain comprises of soft organic tissues of fat while the central processing unit contains hard inorganic metal structure made by man. The human mind is natural, and scholars are still researching on how it works. The central processing unit is created with the use of silicon and other chemicals. It is essential to note that the human mind is natural and that the central processing unit is a replica of the human brain.

The second difference is that the human brain can learn new things through new neuron connections. These connections enable the brain to get rid of the old neurons, and create space for a new type. The central processing unit, however, does not have the ability to learn as metals tightly join the transistors. New transistors cannot be created, but the existing ones can die due to electromagnetic pulse, which is a major difference between the central processing unit and the human brain.

Technology is a crucial part of the modern society as it helps people in performing their daily activities. Computers simplify peoples’ work due to their efficiency in storage of information and performing complicated calculations. Individuals can now do the previously hard tasks due to the evolution of modern technology. Computers provide knowledge to people today, and this enables development of new ideas that facilitate community development. Microchips are part of the human life as they have altered the human behavior in several ways. The integrated circuit has enabled people to achieve their objectives in communication, finance, and education among other areas. Some people fear that the artificial intelligence will make their lives redundant. Many questions arise on performance of artificial intelligence in the future, and the reliability of these systems. These developments, however, enhanced the use of computers as compared to the functions of the first computer invented in 1822.


Nardo, D. (2002). Atoms. San Diego, CA: Kidhaven Press.
Russell, S. J., Norvig, P., & Davis, E. (2010). Artificial intelligence: A modern approach. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Yechuri, S. S. (2004). Microchips: A simple introduction. Arlington, TX: Yechuri Software.

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