The Johnson-Reed Act was the Act of 1924 which gave origin to the National Origins Formula. This statute aimed at freezing the then ethnic distribution which was a consequence of high immigration in to the country. The Act was sponsored by Congressman Johnson Reed, thus the name and aimed at controlling the immigration of people from Asia, Eastern and Southern Europe.
The Executive Order 9066 was an order by the president during World War 2 on 19th February 1942. The then President Franklin D. Roosevelt ordered his secretary to clear the way for the deportation of Japanese Americans who were living in internment camps at that time.
Myth of the Model Minority is a minority group (religious, racial or ethnic) that have members who have a success degree than the average of the national population. This success is measure by education, income, crime rate and family stability.
Affirmative Action (positive discrimination) are policies and factors which include race and color (according to Paul’s book) given consideration in order to benefit in terms of business, education and employment.
McCarran-Walter Act is the Nationality and Immigration Act of 1965 which as enacted to restrict the immigration of people into the United States.
Bracero Program is derived from the Spanish word meaning “manual laborer”. It was a program initiated by then President Franklin D. Roosevelt and the Mexican President Manuel Avila Camacho to move contract laborers from Mexico to the United States in the month of August 1942.
Refugee Act, also known as Public Law 96-212 was an amendment of an earlier law. It amended the Nationality an Immigration Act and the Refugee Assistance Act. It was signed into law by then President Jimmy Carter on the 17th of March 1980. It provided for the absorption of refugees into the American society by providing humanitarian support and giving details of admission as American citizens. It gave uniform and comprehensive provisions for refugee resettlement.
Immigration Reform and Control Act was an amendment of two previous laws. The first were the Nationality and Immigration Act while the second one was the Refugee Assistance and Migration Act. It was signed into law by the President Jimmy Carter on the 17th of March 1980. It made provisions for humanitarian efforts to help the refugees who were living in the United States. It also made humanitarian effort to provide absorption and resettlement admission of refugees into the society of the United States. These refugees were absorbed and given citizenship by this law.
Cesar Chavez was a farm worker in the United States and a leader of a labor group. In addition, he was a civil rights activist who co-founded the National Farm Workers Association. He was born on 31st March 1927 and he died on 23rd April 1993.
Occupy Alcatraz was an occupation by a group of Indians/Native Americans which lasted for nineteen months between 20th of November 1969 and 11th of June 1971. It was by all the eleven tribes. However, their occupation came to an end when the government of the United States forced them out.
The Murder of Vincent Chin was an orchestrated beastly act which happened in June 1982. This man was a Chinese American who received a lot of racially charged comments from racists in the majority White America. He was murdered by being beaten up in Michigan United States. He received a blow from the head from a baseball bat. The hatred was due to the increasing influence by Japanese automakers in the United States market.
Voting Rights Act was enacted in 1965. It was a piece of legislation which enacted the discrimination on voting. Before the Act, African Americans, Hispanics and Native Americans were prohibited to vote, the only race that had the right tot vote was the White Americans. This Act was signed into law by then President Lyndon B. Johnson. It also made provisions for the administration of voting.
Paul Spickard book, almost all aliens not only discuss the theme of race, ethnicity, immigration and the general origin of the different section of the American society, but it also describes ways in which the government of the United States attempted to control the issue of immigration. In his book, Paul gives appendices which show how the government of the day set.
Spickard, Paul R. Almost All Aliens: Race, Colonialism, and Immigration in American History and Identity. London: Routledge, 2007. Print.