Since the 90s of last century, the European Union as a whole and each of the participating countries have begun to implement various initiatives in the area of climate change. In early 2000, the Commission launches the European Climate Change Programme (ECCP), in which collaboration has been initiated with the industries, organizations for the protection of the environment and other concerned agencies. The purpose of co-operation - identify cost-effective measures to reduce CO2 emissions into the atmosphere.
Why it is Important to Reduce CO2 Emissions?
There are real indications that human activity contributes to the accumulation of "greenhouse gases" in the atmosphere, leading to a gradual increase in air temperature on a global scale. In particular, carbon dioxide (carbon dioxide) produced by burning fossil fuels, electricity or cutting and burning of forests. The accumulation of greenhouse gases, including methane, nitrous oxide, and others, went so far that the world faces a real risk of massive and potentially devastating consequences.
In this regard, many developed countries adopted environmental programs, the purpose of which - to promote the prevention of global warming and reduce emissions of greenhouse gases and adapt to the effects of climate change. The program implemented projects to improve energy efficiency in the public and private sector, development projects and promotes renewable energy, etc.
What is Green Energy?
One of the types of sustainable energy is a green energy.
Green energy is the energy produced from renewable sources. Renewable energy resources are obtained from natural sources - sunlight, wind, rain, tides, and geothermal heat. These sources are considered renewable because they are replenished naturally.
In 2006, about 18% of global energy consumption was satisfied by renewable sources of energy, and 13% from traditional biomass, such as wood burning. Hydropower is the next largest source of renewable energy, providing 3% of global energy consumption and 15% of global electricity generation.
The use of wind power is growing at about 30 percent a year, all over the world with an installed capacity of 121,000 megawatts (MW) in 2008, and is widely used in Europe and the United States. Annual production in the photovoltaic industry reached 6,900 MW in 2008. Solar power stations are popular in Germany and Spain. Solar thermal power stations operate in the USA and Spain, and the largest of them is a station in the Mojave Desert capacity of 354 MW.
Wind energy is an energy sector, specializing in the use of wind energy - kinetic energy of air masses in the atmosphere.
Wind energy is a renewable form of energy, as it is a consequence of the sun. Wind power is a booming industry, so at the end of 2009, the total installed capacity of wind power reached 157 GW.
Hydropower is an energy sector, which is an energy source uses the potential energy of the water flow. Hydroelectric power plants are usually built on the rivers by building dams and reservoirs. It is also possible to use the kinetic energy of the water flow in the so-called free flawed (damless) GES.
According to International Energy Agency, “Solar energy is the direction of alternative energy, based on the direct use of solar radiation to produce energy in any form. Solar power uses a renewable source of energy and is environmentally friendly, that is not generating hazardous waste.”
Generated on the basis of solar radiation energy by 2050 will provide 20-25% of the needs of humanity in electricity and reduce emissions of carbon dioxide. Experts believe that the International Energy Agency (IEA), solar power after 40 years at the appropriate level of dissemination of advanced technologies will produce about 9,000 terawatt-hours - or 20-25% of the required electricity, and it will reduce carbon emissions by 6 billion tons annually.
Wave energy is the energy carried by the waves on the ocean surface. It can be used for useful work - power generation, water desalination and pumping water into the tanks. Wave energy - a renewable energy source.
Power excitement evaluated in kW per meter, that is, in kW / m Compared with the wind and solar energy wave energy has a much greater power density. Thus, the average power of the excitement of the seas and oceans, usually greater than 15 kW / m At a height of 2 m waves in power up to 80 kW / m
Geothermal energy - is the direction of energy, based on the production of electricity and thermal energy from thermal energy stored in the earth, geothermal stations. Usually refers to alternative sources of energy, using renewable energy resources.
Green Energy Disadvantages
Despite the large number of benefits, green energy has a number of disadvantages.
The main disadvantage of bringing together most of the alternative energy technologies and impeding the rapid development of the industry is the high cost of electricity , compared with wholesale prices on the electricity market and, consequently , the long payback period .
Another disadvantages of alternative energy include low efficiency (solar panels) , variability of work (for example, the energy produced by solar panels, depends on weather conditions and time of day), expensive repairs and maintenance (wind ) .
Green energy is an important step on the path of humanity to reduce the level of pollution. In addition, many types of green energy does not require the direct use of scarce natural resources, resources that are consumed in the production of such energy are inexhaustible on a human scale.
On the other hand, it is quite expensive, its efficiency is still low. Many kinds of green energy are unstable resource, which depends on weather conditions. Further development will show how effective and popular alternative energy sources will be in the future.
Visual Aid #1. Solar Energy Station
Visual aid #2. Wind Energy Farm
"Solar Energy Perspectives: Executive Summary" (PDF). International Energy Agency. 2011. Archived from the original on 2011-12-03.
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